• F.A.S.T. Scope and Sequence


     Concept #         Introduction          Examples         “Stories”

    Concept #1

    Closed syllables with short vowels

    This concept reviews the sounds of the consonants and short vowels.  Students will learn the concept of a closed syllable.

    bag, let, him, rod, tug

    A syllable is a puff of air or a tap.  The consonant at the end of it makes it closed.

    Concept #2

    Closed syllables with teams

    This concept reviews the sounds of the basic consonants and short vowels.  It introduces the concept of consonant digraph.

    ch, sh, th, wh, qu, ng

    These are called teams, they work together to make the sound.

    Concept #3

    Short vowel, long spelling

    This concept introduces the spelling rule that one-syllable words with a short vowel just before the last sound use the long spelling.

    /f/  ff

    /l/  ll

    /s/  ss

    /k/  ck

    /ch/  tch

    /ge/  dge

    Short vowels are hungry.  They want the longer (bigger) piece/spelling.

    Concept #4

    Complex ends

    This concept introduces (1) ending consonant blends and (2) suffixes.

    fist, camp, tent

    lifting, renting

    Ending consonants are blended for reading, segmented for spelling.

    Concept #5

    Vowel suffix power (The Bully Rule)

    This concept introduces the spelling pattern that a single, final consonant must be doubled before a vowel suffix, to preserve the short vowel sound of the base word.

    hop becomes hopping when the

    -ing suffix is added

    Vowel suffixes are bullies.  They can hop over one consonant and make that vowel say its own name.  To protect that short vowel, call in a bodyguard.  (The bodyguard is the second consonant.)




    Concept #6

    King/think words

    Al/all words

    This concept introduces the fact that /ng/ and /nk/ sounds distort the short vowel sound /i/ and /a/.  The same is true with /l/  and /ll/ (and short a).

    king, think, ball


    Concept #7

    Complex fronts

    This concept introduces beginning blends, or complex fronts.

    frog, swim


    Concept #8

    Vowel tag (breaking)

    This concept introduces the first rule of dividing a word into syllables: the vowel “tags” the consonant after it, and forms a closed syllable.

    cabin, rabbit, seven

    When you play tag on the playground you know you are “It” when someone tags (touches) you.  The same is true with multi-syllable words.

    Concept #9

    Open/silent e/changing endings

    This concept is the most complex.  It reviews the open syllable and introduces the magic, magnetic, silent e syllable, the next two rules for dividing words into syllables, and prefixes.  It discusses how the silent e is dropped before adding a vowel suffix.

    mile, rake, rude



    pre (before)

    pro (for)

    re (again)

    de (down)



    An open syllable has no consonant after the vowel and can run a long way saying its own name.


    The silent, magic, magnetic e pulls the final consonant away from the vowel and allows it to run and say its own name.

    Concept #10

    Long e words

    This concept introduces the best choices for the spelling of long e.

    Best for one-syllable word is ee. (feed)

    Best for multi-syllable words: e, e-consonant-e, and y.

    (began, impede, lady)





    Concept #11

    R Family

    This concept introduces the vowel + r syllable.  The three sounds of the r Family are taught: /er/, /or/. /ar/.






    The R Family has two teenagers-/or/ and /ar/.  They sometimes say /er/ like the rest of the family, but there are times when they do their own thing!

    Concept #12


    This concept introduces vowel teams that have an unexpected sound that is neither long nor short.

    au, aw


    ou, ow

    oi, oy

    The -w and -y endings have “tails” and usually come at the end of a word.  However, the students must “LEaRN that /aw/, /ow/ often appear in the middle of words with those endings (l-er-n).

    Concept #13


    This concept continues to develop the vowel team syllables.  These vowel teams follow the rule that when two vowels go walking, the first one does the talking.

    ee, ai, ay, oa, oe, ui, ue


    Concept #14

    Long a

    This concept introduces the best choices for the spelling of long a.

    a. a-consonant-e, ay

    radar, lake, say


    Concept #15

    Long o

    This concept introduces the best choices for the spelling of long o.

    o, o-consonant-e, ow

    rodeo, mole, slow





    Concept #16

    Most kind old words

    This concept teaches that a few word “families” have a long vowel sound before the final blend.

    kind, cold, post

    These should be taught as families.

    Concept #17

    Green review


    This concept is a review of the basic vowel chart.

    This includes the 15 vowel sounds, the r Family, and the green walkers.


    Concept #18


    This concept further develops the different spellings of vowel sounds.  The yellows fit what we know, but there is something else.

    ou, ow, ea, y, igh


    Concept #19

    Long i/cy change

    This concept introduces the best choices for the spelling of long i.

    It also teaches the CY spelling rule.  If a word ends in a consonant+y change the y to i before adding a suffix, unless the suffix begins with an i.

    i, i-consonant-e, y

    migrate, smile, cyclone

    When determining whether or not to change the y to i:

    check to see if there is a consonant before the y; if so, circle the ending.  Check to see that there is not an i suffix-if that is the case, circle the suffix.  Two circles-change the y to i!

    Concept #20


    This concept further develops the different spellings of vowel sounds.

    ei, ey, eigh, eu, ew, ie

    Red means “Stop!  These do not fit what we know!”



    Concept #21

    Long u

    This concept introduces the best choices for the long u spelling.

    u, u-consonant-e, ew

    music, rule, few

    Ew is usually used at the end of a word.

    Concept #22

    Soft c and g

    This concept teaches that c and g have “soft” sounds: /s/ and /j/ before e, i, and y

    cycle, gem,  giraffe

    Use the slogan, Ge I Ce Y (Gee, I see why!)

    Concept #23

    Silent letters

    This concept teaches silent letters; letters which once represented a sound, but no longer do.  The spelling with the silent letter, remains.

    comb, knit, wring


    Concept #24

    Back of the board

    This concept develops the ability to read and spell multi-syllable words with common prefixes, roots, and suffixes.


    The back of the board refers to the magnetic board used to work with sounds.  A copy of the back of the board is included in this packet.

    Concept #25

    Captain words/scribal o

    This concept teaches the scribal o and the ain family.



    Before m, n and v the vowel o may have the short /u/ sound. 

    At times, the ain family is pronounced /in/.  Students memorize this family through sentences.